WFHSS - World Forum for Hospital Sterile Supply

WFHSS - World Forum for Hospital Sterile Supply


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Ciprofloxacin: A Versatile Antibiotic for Various Infections

What is Ciprofloxacin used for?

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that effectively fights bacterial infections by targeting and eliminating the underlying bacteria. As a broad-spectrum antibiotic, it is utilized to treat a wide range of infections caused by susceptible bacteria. This article provides an overview of the diverse infections that can be effectively treated with ciprofloxacin.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

 Uncomplicated and Complicated UTIs: Ciprofloxacin is prescribed for both uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs when other antibiotics are not suitable. It helps combat the bacterial infections affecting the urinary tract.

Respiratory Infections

Ciprofloxacin is effective in treating various respiratory infections, including pneumonia and chest infections. It targets the bacteria responsible for these conditions, providing relief and aiding recovery.

Skin, Bone, and Soft Tissue Infections

Infections affecting the skin, bones, and soft tissues can be effectively treated with ciprofloxacin. It acts against the bacterial agents responsible for these infections, facilitating healing and preventing further complications.

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Ciprofloxacin is sometimes used to treat certain sexually transmitted infections. However, specific STIs may require alternative or combination therapies, so it is important to consult a healthcare professional for appropriate treatment.

Eye and Ear Infections

Ciprofloxacin can be employed to address bacterial eye infections, such as conjunctivitis, as well as bacterial ear infections. Its antibacterial properties aid in resolving these infections and promoting recovery.

Infections Resistant to Other Antibiotics

Ciprofloxacin is often considered when other antibiotics have been ineffective in treating an infection. Its broad-spectrum nature makes it a valuable option in such cases, helping to combat stubborn bacterial strains.

Meningitis Prevention

In certain circumstances, ciprofloxacin may be administered to individuals who have been in close contact with someone diagnosed with meningitis. It serves as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of contracting the infection.

Ciprofloxacin's Brand Names and Variants

Introduction: Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic widely recognized under various brand names, including Ciproxin, Ciloxan, and Cetraxal. This article provides an overview of these brand names and their respective applications.


Ciproxin is one of the prominent brand names for ciprofloxacin. It is commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bone infections. Ciproxin is available in different formulations, such as tablets, oral suspension, and intravenous injections, providing flexibility in treatment options.


Ciloxan is another well-known brand name for ciprofloxacin, specifically used for ophthalmic applications. It is primarily prescribed for the treatment of eye infections, including conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers caused by susceptible bacteria. Ciloxan is available as eye drops or ointments, allowing direct application to the affected eye.


Cetraxal is a brand name for ciprofloxacin that is primarily used for the treatment of external ear infections, known as otitis externa. It comes in the form of ear drops, allowing for convenient application directly into the ear canal. Cetraxal helps combat bacterial infections causing inflammation and discomfort in the outer ear.

How to Use Ciprofloxacin Effectively?

Ciprofloxacin is available

  • in tablet,
  • suspension (liquid), and
  • extended-release tablet forms.

It can be taken orally with or without food. The tablets and suspension are usually taken twice a day, while the extended-release tablets are typically taken once a day. In the case of treating gonorrhea, a single dose of tablets or suspension may be prescribed. It's important to take ciprofloxacin at approximately the same time each day. The duration of treatment will vary depending on the type of infection, so follow your doctor's instructions regarding the length of your ciprofloxacin course. Be sure to carefully read the directions on your prescription label and seek clarification from your doctor or pharmacist if needed. Take ciprofloxacin exactly as directed, neither more nor less, and avoid taking it more frequently than prescribed.

Note that different types of ciprofloxacin are not interchangeable. Ensure that you receive the specific type of ciprofloxacin prescribed by your doctor. Should you have any questions about the type of ciprofloxacin you were provided, consult your pharmacist.

Avoid consuming ciprofloxacin with dairy products or calcium-fortified juices alone. However, it is permissible to take ciprofloxacin alongside a meal that includes these foods or beverages.

Timing and Dosage

For tablets, swallow them whole and do not crush or chew them. If your doctor advises you to split a 250-mg or 500-mg tablet, it can be broken in half along the scored line. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without splitting, crushing, or chewing. If you have difficulty swallowing tablets or extended-release tablets, inform your doctor.

When using the suspension form, shake the bottle thoroughly for 15 seconds before each use to ensure proper mixing of the medication. Swallow the prescribed dose without chewing the granules in the suspension. After each use, securely close the bottle. Do not administer the suspension to a patient through a feeding tube.

Typically, you should start experiencing improvement within the first few days of ciprofloxacin treatment. If your symptoms fail to improve or worsen, contact your doctor. For those being treated for a urinary tract infection, notify your doctor if you develop a fever or experience back pain during or after the treatment, as these symptoms could indicate a worsening infection.

Continue taking ciprofloxacin until you finish the entire prescription, even if you start feeling better. Do not discontinue ciprofloxacin without consulting your doctor, unless you encounter specific serious side effects. Prematurely stopping the medication or skipping doses may result in incomplete treatment of the infection and can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

Ciprofloxacin and Tendon Risks

It is crucial to have a clear understanding of these risks before starting ciprofloxacin treatment. Remember to consult with your doctor to discuss the best course of action for your specific situation.

Tendon Risks

Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture During your treatment and for several months afterward, the use of ciprofloxacin increases the

risk of tendinitis (swelling of fibrous tissue connecting bones to muscles) and tendon rupture (tearing of fibrous tissue connecting bones to muscles). These complications can affect various areas of the body, including the shoulder, hand, back of the ankle, and other locations.

Age and Other Factors

Although tendinitis or tendon rupture can occur at any age, individuals over 60 years old face a higher risk. It is important to inform your doctor about any relevant medical history, including kidney, heart, or lung transplant, kidney disease, joint or tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, or regular participation in physical activities. Additionally, disclose if you are currently taking oral or injectable steroids like dexamethasone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), or prednisone (Rayos).

Nerve Damage and Sensory Changes

Peripheral Neuropathy

Ciprofloxacin can cause changes in sensation and nerve damage that may persist even after discontinuing the medication. Peripheral neuropathy, characterized by tingling, numbness, and pain in the hands and feet, is a potential complication. Inform your doctor if you have a history of peripheral neuropathy.

Symptoms to Watch for

If you experience symptoms such as numbness, tingling, pain, burning, weakness in the arms or legs, or a change in your ability to sense light touch, vibrations, pain, heat, or cold, discontinue ciprofloxacin and seek immediate medical attention.

Effects on the Brain and Nervous System

Ciprofloxacin can have serious side effects on the brain and nervous system, which may occur even after the first dose. It is crucial to inform your doctor about any history of seizures, epilepsy, cerebral arteriosclerosis (narrowing of blood vessels in or near the brain that can lead to stroke or ministroke), stroke, changed brain structure, or kidney disease. If you experience seizures, tremors, dizziness, lightheadedness, persistent headaches (with or without blurred vision), difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, nightmares, paranoia, hallucinations, suicidal thoughts or behaviors, restlessness, anxiety, nervousness, depression, memory changes, confusion, or other mood or behavioral changes, discontinue ciprofloxacin and seek immediate medical attention.

Considerations for Myasthenia Gravis Patients

Ciprofloxacin can exacerbate muscle weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis, a disorder of the nervous system that causes muscle weakness. In severe cases, it may lead to difficulty breathing or even death. If you have myasthenia gravis, consult your doctor, who may advise against taking ciprofloxacin. If your doctor determines that ciprofloxacin is necessary, promptly notify them if you experience muscle weakness or breathing difficulties during treatment.

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